Friday, 1 July 2016

Meet Personal Needs without Money Shortage as No Guarantor Loans Available with Sufficient Funds

Are you facing trouble due to insufficient funds? Start searching for a reliable monetary source that can provide you funds on an immediate basis. However, which one will more suitable, from multiple loan options, for your financial condition? An effective deal on no guarantor loans makes the way for you in regaining financial strength into your life. In the marketplace of the UK, several professional credit lenders are available that can help you in choosing the most perfect of them. Alternatively, you can also do a prior online research and compare interest rates of different lenders. Once you select the lender, start applying quickly to obtain these given below benefits of no guarantor loans.  

Loans with Simple Application and Fast Approval :

The loans with no guarantor provide several major benefits to the borrowers. One of them is simple application and fast approval. Bulk of the credit lenders in the huge marketplace of the UK; now provide these loans through online method of application. To follow the procedure, borrowers should have an internet connection and then, they have to come online to visit the official website of the lender. An application form is there, which the borrowers should fill with relevant details related to their age, residence, bank account and income proofs.

Once borrowers mention all these details, submit the application instantly and leave all things on the lender. However, the lender will take few minutes to review their details and then, transfer the cash immediately to their bank account. The entire process will complete within a single business day.

Loans for Bad Credit People :

Your bad credit score will not come in your way when you are seeking financial assistance through the means of loans bad credit no guarantor. In fact, these loans specifically dedicated for those people, who possess bad credit record and have restricted to borrow money by their banks or finance agencies. While providing these loans, the lenders do not ask for the credit score of the borrower because the amount is not a hefty one. However, the interest rates may be on a higher side, but the repayments are surely flexible. As a bad credit borrower, you can conveniently repay the amount within the given period and regain your credibility among the lenders.

Loans with No Guarantor:

Financial emergency brings many obstacles in the way of accomplishing personal desires. However, the time has changed now, as plenty of loan options are available in the market and personal loans no guarantor are indeed among them. These credits ensure no hurdle can affect your financial life and they provide sufficient cash even if you do not have a guarantor to co-sign on the loan amount. Furthermore, if you are carrying a bad credit score, it may be difficult for you to find a reliable person to become your guarantor. Therefore, there is no need to look for another wayArticle Search, rather select a professional credit lender in the UK and lodge your online request for personal loans with no guarantor required.

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How Can Finance Email List Be Helpful For Business?

In order to make your finance email marketing campaign bear fruitful results, it is essential that you possess finance email lists that is authenticate and is of most recent. This is so because when you have already planned to create awareness regarding your financial services, it will be useless pondering upon whom to email your business financial services. Finance email lists make the perfect reach possible for the apt customer. Pioneer List, a well reputed email marketing list service provider can help in the following way to make your business grow.

Build your Brand Image

The Finance email list that Pioneer Lists offers included all the contacts that will allow you to make frequent contact with your potential customers regarding your services and offers. When you already have the list of contacts from the finance sector, you can keep your clients updated about your products and services from time to time. This will assist customers to stay educated and take right decision about your brand before heading for impulsive shopping.

Propel Customer Engagements and Sales:

Financial services email marketing from Pioneer Lists will allow you to possess contact details of important and potent clients from financial sectors located over the globe. This in turn will not only widen the scope of customer engagement but also enhance sales. The mailing lists are also segmented according to geography, income, age etc so that it becomes smoother to target consumers and turn them into sales.


The reason why business financial service providers are advised to maintain financial email lists is because of its practicality. Whenever required you can easily communicate with qualified as well as interested audience.

Reduced Effort And Time:

With mail building and listing, wastage of extra time and effort can be avoided during the hours of necessity as it will already bear the essential contact details to be targeted for campaigns and other promotional activity.

Personalized Mails:

By possessing the financial mailing lists, you will have an idea about the contact that require updates from your side or at least can be aimed at for future trading and increased sales. This in a way safes you from sending mass mails to random people and being termed as spam. You can as well address the reader by his/her name to make things look professional. thus drawing their attention.

Frequent Communication:

Since the list will be already segmented according to required parameters, it will be possible to maintain frequent communication with customers and registered audience. Instead of mailing them a catalogue once in a quarter, you can send the once in a week or a month to make things more recent and updated. 

Swift Responses:

since you will be shooting mails only to consumers related to the field of financeFind Article, you will be receiving early responses from people who will be interested in your products or services.

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Indirapuram Habitat Centre - Optimistically start your retail business in Ghaziabad

Indirapuram Habitat Centre is a newly launched commercial project in Ghaziabad featuring high end retail solutions for the urban society of today’s date. Located in Plot 16, Ahinsa Khand 1, this commercial property in Indirapuram enjoys a prudent location along the expressway connecting NH-24. Very close to Vaishali Metro Station, Habitat Centre Ghaziabad is exposed to a huge crowd commuting via roadway and metro services from rest of Delhi/NCR. Besides creating an appeal to this distant audience, this project is a filling for the vacuum created due to the commercial needs of the neighbouring residential development.

Indirapuram Habitat Center shopping mall features its retail arcade along the expressway on 12.5 acres area. Dedicated to create a shopping fiesta in Ghaziabad, the Habitat Centre retail shops are exclusively crafted with utmost professionalism for the high end retailers. If you are ready to showcase your stock in front of a huge audience while increasing your brand exposure, Habitat Centre Indirapuram is the best location. These retail spaces are constructed on the ground and first floors and are offered in various floor layouts starting from 200 sq. ft., apt for anchor stores, vanilla stores, high street retail brands, showrooms and more. Customized in an intelligent way to provide rooms for restaurants, cafeterias, bistros, pubs and more at the food court, this category of Habitat Centre retail shops also opens the door for your commercial real estate investment.

A futuristic project with upscale features and luxurious amenities, Habitat Centre Ghaziabad allows you to optimistically start your retail business at this destination to magnify your business prospects while earning huge revenue. A lavish project with an assured footfall from everywhere, Indirapuram Habitat Centre is itself a customer generating hub from its 395 studio apartments and 7-star IHC Club. A high street shopping destination for the elites, this commercial property in Ghaziabad is the brainchild of the most reputed builder in Delhi NCR, Victory Infratech. Committed to cater the needs of the today’s world, this builder group has launched this project after much research and survey.

For the retailers, Indirapuram is a favoured hub because of its increasing residential population. So if you are optimistic at heart and futuristic in your business vision, give a shot to this investment and experience the difference in your retail business. For further enquiry about your investment optionsPsychology Articles, visit or call 9911670077.

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Brief History Of Florida Citizens Property Insurance Corporation

Several insurers also use the word “citizens” in their official business names such as Citizens Insurance Company of America (a subsidiary of The Hanover Insurance Group) and Louisiana Citizens Property Insurance Corporations. Every company above does not have the affiliation of any sort with each other. The former is a for-profit insurer in Midwest, while the latter is the equivalent entity in Louisiana. The main idea behind the foundation of the corporation is to provide general property insurance and windstorm coverage for homeowners who cannot get the same policies from private companies in the market.

Why It is Necessary

As of 1992, Hurricane Andrew was the most destructive storm to hit United States costing more than $45.5 billion in damage. There were about 30 insurance companies in Florida that took the critical financial loss for claims. Eleven of them went bankrupt, while others stopped underwriting or renewing new insurance policies in the state. The remaining companies were still in business, but they raised the premium rate and deductibles to compensate for expenses. Prices of property insurance were not very reasonable for consumers. About a million homeowners in Florida were unable to find any company willing to insure their properties.

After Hurricane Andrew

Between 1992 and 2003, damages from hurricanes were quite manageable. In fact, Florida did not see any major windstorm during that period except in 1998 (Hurricane Earl and Hurricane Georges). Accommodate the needs for insurance, state’s government, merged FRPCJUA (Florida Residential Property and Casualty Joint Underwriting Association) with FWUA (Florida Windstorm Underwriting Association) to form Citizens Property Insurance Corporation in 2002. The state also created the Florida Hurricane Catastrophe Fund as a resource for insurers and consumers.

In 2004, Florida saw two major storms with a total damage of more than $57 billion. Five major storms made landfall again in the following year including Katrina, the most expensive and destructive Atlantic hurricane of all time. Just like in 1992, several companies were out of business due to expensive claims. For many residents, Citizens Insurance became not just the last resort, but the only resort available at that time. As of 2005, Florida owed about $5 billion; the recovery came from insurance policy assessments.

Private Companies Resurgence

Major insurance companies such as State Farm and Allstate pulled back in 2005. Since that time, smaller in-state companies have been taking a larger share of policies. Those startups do not implement the conventional business model by accumulating cash reserves for payout necessities. Instead, they use reinsurance model in which they pay a percentage of total policy values to offshore companies. There is a distribution of risks, preventing them from paying more than they can handle to cover high expense claims.

Thanks to reinsurance models, small companies are making good profits. They determine the premium rate for profitability to keep the business going, rather than for the purpose of building a cash reserve. Florida Office of Insurance Regulation (OIR) suggests that insurance companies do both cash reserve and reinsurance to prepare for the once-in-a-century major storm. In case claims exceed reserve and reinsurance, the government takes over the policies and pay off the remaining amount to policyholders.

Another important turning point of Florida property insurance market is that Citizens charges its customers the highest rate possible in accordance to OIR. The purpose is to avoid competition with other for-profit private companies. Such regulation keeps the market in good shape, and residents always have reliable insurers if needs be. Through 2006, Citizens could not allow insurance agents to underwrite policies through not-for-profit insurers when there was a private company that offered more affordable rate or one willingly to write the risk. A private corporation or a group of companies could take over policies from Citizens as well. As long as they met the requirements by the government, Citizens would transfer the risk and cancel its coverage.

Better Legislation

In June 2007, Governor Crist signed a legislation which permitted insurance agents to underwrite policies though Citizens, but with more strict conditions:

1. When a private carrier has 15% more expensive rate for the same (or at least comparable) policy, insurance agents are eligible to underwrite it through Citizens.
2. Customers can choose to stay with Citizens even when private carriers offer a better rate.

Major Companies Made Returns

In 2010, major companies began to enter Florida property insurance market. With big names in the market, reinsurance cost became more competitive that it fell by about 10% in the year. However, the cost of insurance remained the same for customers.


The 2007 legislation concerning property insurance focuses on risk transfer or depopulation. There are three important points to understand about depopulation as follows:

1. Florida requires Citizens Property Insurance to create programs that lead policyholders to return to the private insurance market. The purpose is to reduce the risk of assessments for all residents. Any program carrying out this objective is subject to approval by Office of Insurance Regulation.

2. Participating private insurers must undergo an approval process by OIR as well. Qualifications include financial conditions of the companies. If a company meets the requirement, Citizens insurance allows the insurer to take over policies at any timeFree Web Content, as long as the policy is in the active period. 

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How Language And Culture Boost International Commercials

After doing our market research, market intelligence and the like, we matrix down the results to determine which international segments that we can serve to satisfaction from the cheapest means possible. Therefore we need the just one commercial that would appeal to all our segments when we are delivering our message without offending those around them.

The factors that influence appeal to an international audience are diverse and cannot be distinguishably grouped by just countries. Some of these factors are shared among countries while in others they totally defer with countries which gives a tricky task for marketers to develop a commercial. However translation agencies have discovered that language and culture attributes can be used to contract and harmonize all country attitude disparities to deliver an international media message successfully.

Some of the following language and cultural factors can be traced in Coca cola commercials and that could be the reason they are globally successful.


Language can be selectively used to a wider coverage. Although English comes 3rd as an internationally widely spoken language after Chinese Mandarin and Spanish, yet the adverts made in English for the globe popularize more than the two languages.  Mandarin and Spanish have biggest number of speakers than English but are not commonly used for international commercials because they are concentrated only in Europe and Asian countries as English covers the whole globe including Africa. The most global entrepreneurs are employing translation services to boast their commercials. Of course most cases English is used because much as it may not be actively spoken, it is actively understood but it is very rewarding to translate your commercial into the local language of the target audience

Language can be tuned to appeal to social classes of people.  Here language is further distributed among the demographics. The educated mostly prefer formal language to jargons while the uneducated prefer localized jargons to formal language. However the language used in international commercials should be neutral to both classes. Research shows that both classes would prefer an educational language for a commercial, for example telling impacts that could be avoided if one used their company’s product.

 Language is a symbol of cultural pride. Therefore one international commercial can be translated into several native languages to get attention of the native speakers who think that their language is superior to other languages.


Culture can be used to appeal to international demographics. It is important for an international advertiser to look for the culture that cuts across the entire globe and bases on that to deliver their message. For example the culture of teenagers across the globe is outing, partying and dancing. The most popular global adverts around the latter captivate the youth’s attention to listen to the message and further buy the product.

Cultural achievements. The uniqueness of a certain culture to the globe can facilitate an international commercial to succeed. For example the commercials for world cup are set around Brazilian cultural dance to reflect hospitality and entertainment that the spectators should expect to receive during their stay in Brazil because globally the Brazilian dance is recognized as greatly entertaining.

 The culture attitudes that cut across the target audience have to be considered.   For example most parents in Africa disapprove teenage dating or skimpy dresses. An advert made with such a background would not appeal to the elders in Africa and would provoke a lot of judgments. In London it’s a universal culture that prevails therefore exhibiting one’s native culture in a commercial for such a place may be unappealing to the public.

The cultural universalism can used to link your commercial for appeal. The western culture is generally and globally perceived as simple yet stylish; from the dress code to language. Therefore an international commercial set in the western culture tend rank more to cultural specific ones. Most airline companies situate their commercials to portray the kind of hospitality service that travelers will receive inside the plane to be a western culture one because it is more universally appropriate for any person in a new place than other cultures, although it always to backed up with the native culture of where the journey is destined.

Business that target foreign markets are encouraged to utilize translation services to boost their market potential. HoweverPsychology Articles, culture is very critical in this case. We have heard of many advertising and marketing translation blunders and therefore culture should be keenly observed while undertaking any marketing or advertising translation for a specific audience. Business can avoid this by employing the services of a professional translation agency rather than dealing direct with individual translators. This is because translation agencies often have a pool of qualified and professional linguists capable of translating advertising or marketing materials in a way suitable for the intended audience.

Health Benefits of Yogurt

Yogurts or the ubiquitous Indian ‘Dahi’ are a wonder when it comes to health benefits. This delicious, creamy thing is consumed in a variety of ways; be it a fruit dessert, snacks, or as a cooking ingredient. It’s as much nutritious as tasty. The good news is that, this versatile food has come up with more yummy versions in the form of flavoured varieties. Nowadays, flavoured yogurt manufacturers have opened up an array of choices for yogurt flavours. So, now we have different forms of yogurt flavours, and one can choose anything among fruit flavours to classical chocolate and popular confectionary flavours. The availability of so many yogurt flavours has added to its existing popularity.

Among health pros, yogurts are one of the top natural sources of available probiotics. The manufacturing process of yogurt involves bacterial activity which converts milk lactose to lactic acid. So the yogurt is loaded with beneficial bacteria that improves your digestion and enhances the healthy biota of the alimentary canal. Some yogurts come with a special ‘probiotic’ label, and we have flavoured yogurt manufacturers who have also launched their probiotic flavoured versions.

Yogurts come from milk. So it has many of the nutritional benefits associated with milk. Firstly, yogurt is rich in calcium. Calcium enhances bone density and proper calcium intake will keep several ailments like osteoporosis at bay. Many prefer yogurt to milk, and you can add it to your everyday meal as a dessert or snack.

Yogurt is a wholesome food choice and some even come with low fat content. In this case yogurt is an ideal option for losing weight. It keeps your stomach full for a long time and controls food cravings.

Yogurt contains protein. So any yogurt preparation is a good meal post a workout session. It is also stuffed with several nutrients like potassium, magnesium, phosphorous, zinc and vitamin B12. Some yogurt varieties available in the market are enriched with vitamin D. Yogurt has also been found to help in maintaining normal blood pressure and enhance the immune systemFind Article, protecting from infections. So all this sums up yogurt as a power food.

Yogurt will continue to be a popular food choice among foodies and health conscious alike. The entry of flavoured yogurt manufacturers in the market in recent years has made things even more interesting.

Wednesday, 29 June 2016

Istanbul Atatürk Airport

Istanbul Atatürk Airport, (Turkish: İstanbul Atatürk Havalimanı) is the main international airport serving Istanbul, Turkey, (followed by Sabiha Gökçen International Airport) and the biggest airport in Turkey by total number of passengers, destinations served and aircraft movements. Opened in 1924 and located in Yeşilköy, on the European side of the city, it is 24 km (15 mi) west of the city centre and functions as the main hub for Turkish Airlines.

The airport was originally named Yeşilköy Airport. During the 1980s, it was renamed Istanbul Atatürk International Airport in honor of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder and first president of the Republic of Turkey. It served more than 60 million passengers in 2015, making it the 11th busiest airport in the world in terms of total passenger traffic and the 10th busiest in the world in terms of international passenger traffic. It was Europe's 3rd busiest airport just after London Heathrow, Paris Charles de Gaulle and ahead of Frankfurt Airport in 2015.

On 28 June 2016, explosions and shootings were reported at the airport. 41 deaths and 230 injuries were reported.

Terminal 1 is the older and smaller of the two terminals and exclusively handles domestic flights within Turkey. Until the opening of Terminal 2, it used to be the airport's international terminal. Terminal 1 features its own check-in and airside facilities on the upper floor that lead to twelve departure gates (101-112) which are equipped with jet bridges. On the ground level there are five baggage reclaim belts as well as a curbside independent from Terminal 2.

Terminal 2
Terminal 2 as been inaugurated in 2000 and is used for all international flights. It features a large main hall containing eight check-in isles and a wide range of airside facilities such as shops and restaurants. The departures area consists of 27 gates (201-226) which are all equipped with jetbridges as well as several bus-boarding stands. The arrivals floor below is equipped with 11 baggage reclaim belts. Terminal 2 is able to handle widebody aircraft such as Turkish Airlines' Boeing 777-300ERs.

There is also an additional terminal for general aviation to the northwest of the main areas as well as a dedicated cargo terminal including sections for radioactive and refrigerated freight.

The airport terminals have been operated by TAV Airports since January 2000. TAV has already invested US$600 million since 1998. In 2005 TAV won the concession agreement to operate Atatürk for 15.5 years at an amount of $4 billion. TAV started its construction at the airport for new boarding gates at international terminal as well as building a new air traffic control tower. Unused facility buildings are demolished and three new boarding bridges are being built. When the new tower is completed, the old one will be demolished. When the international terminal is expanded, some of the jetways will be left to the domestics terminal which are on the west of the international terminal, connected to it.

On 30 January 1975, Turkish Airlines Flight 345, crashed into the Sea of Marmara during its final approach to the airport. All 42 passengers and crew on board were killed.
On 25 April 2015, Turkish Airlines Flight 1878, operated by A320-200, TC-JPE was severely damaged in a landing accident. The aircraft aborted the first hard landing, which inflicted engine and gear damage. On the 2nd attempt at landing, the right gear collapsed and the aircraft rolled off the runway spinning 180 degrees. All on board evacuated without injury.

Terrorist attacks
On 28 June 2016, three terrorists killed 41 civilians by gunfire and subsequent suicide bombings.
The Turkish Chamber of Civil Engineers lists Atatürk International Airport as one of the fifty civil engineering feats in Turkey, a list of remarkable engineering projects completed in the first 50 years of the chamber's existence.
In the 2013 Air Transport News awards ceremony, İstanbul Atatürk Airport was named Airport of the Year. Also, the airport has been named Europe's Best Airport in the 40-50 million passenger per year category at the 2013 Skytrax World Airport Awards.

Economy of Turkey

The economy of Turkey is defined as an emerging market economy by the IMF. Turkey is among the world's developed countries according to the CIA World Factbook. Turkey is also defined by economists and political scientists as one of the world's newly industrialized countries. Turkey has the world's 18th largest nominal GDP, and 15th largest GDP by PPP. The country is among the world's leading producers of agricultural products; textiles; motor vehicles, ships and other transportation equipment; construction materials; consumer electronics and home appliances.

As of March 2007, Turkey is the world's largest producer of hazelnuts, cherries, figs, apricots, quinces and pomegranates; the second largest producer of watermelons, cucumbers and chickpeas; the third largest producer of tomatoes, eggplants, green peppers, lentils and pistachios; the fourth largest producer of onions and olives; the fifth largest producer of sugar beet; the sixth largest producer of tobacco, tea and apples; the seventh largest producer of cotton and barley; the eighth largest producer of almonds; the ninth largest producer of wheat, rye and grapefruit, and the tenth largest producer of lemons. Turkey has been self-sufficient in food production since the 1980s. In the year 1989, the total production of wheat was 16.2 million tonnes, and barley 3.44 million tonnes. The agricultural output has been growing at a respectable rate. However, since the 1980s, agriculture has been in a state of decline in terms of its share in the total economy.

Turkey's Vestel is the largest TV producer in Europe, accounting for a quarter of all TV sets manufactured and sold on the continent in 2006. By January 2005, Vestel and its rival Turkish electronics and white goods brand Beko accounted for more than half of all TV sets manufactured in Europe. Another Turkish electronics brand, Profilo-Telra, was Europe's third largest TV producer in 2005. EU market share of Turkish companies in consumer electronics has increased significantly following the Customs Union agreement signed between the EU and Turkey: in color TVs from 5% in 1995 to more than 50% in 2005, in digital devices from 3% to 15%, and in white goods from 3% to 18%.

Turkish companies made clothing exports worth $13.98 billion in 2006; more than $10.67 billion of which (76.33%) were made to the EU member states.

Turkish automotive companies like TEMSA, Otokar and BMC are among the world's largest van, bus and truck manufacturers.
In 2008 Turkey produced 1,225,400 motor vehicles, ranking as the 5th largest producer in Europe (behind the United Kingdom and above Italy) and the 12th largest producer in the world.

The automotive industry is an important part of the economy since the late 1960s. The companies that operate in the sector are mainly located in the Marmara Region. With a cluster of car-makers and parts suppliers, the Turkish automotive sector has become an integral part of the global network of production bases, exporting over $22.94 billion worth of motor vehicles and components in 2008.

TÜLOMSAŞ (1894), TÜVASAŞ (1951) and EUROTEM (2006) are among the major producers of multiple unit trains, locomotives and wagons in Turkey, including high-speed EMU and DMU models.

Turkey is one of the world's leading shipbuilding nations; in 2007 Turkish shipyards ranked 4th in the world (behind China, South Korea and Japan) in terms of the number of ordered ships, and also 4th in the world (behind Italy, USA and Canada) in terms of the number of ordered mega yachts.

SOM cruise missile developed by TÜBİTAK SAGE and Roketsan for the Turkish Air Force
Turkey has many modern armament manufacturers. Annual exports reached $1.6 billion in 2014. MKEK, TAI, Aselsan, Roketsan, FNSS, Nurol Makina, Otokar, and Havelsan are major manufacturers. On July 11, 2002, Turkey became a Level 3 partner of the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) development program. TAI builds various aircraft types and models, such as the F-16 Fighting Falcon for the Turkish Air Force. Turkey has recently launched domestically built new military/intelligence satellites including a 0.8m resolution reconnaissance satellite (Project Göktürk-1) for use by the Turkish Armed Forces and a 2m resolution reconnaissance satellite (Project Göktürk-2) for use by the Turkish National Intelligence Organization. Other important products include the Altay main battle tank, A400M, TAI TFX, TF-2000 class AAW frigate, Milgem class corvette, TAI Anka UAV, Aselsan İzci UGV, T-155 Fırtına self-propelled howitzer, J-600T missile, T-129 attack helicopter, Roketsan UMTAS anti-tank missile, Roketsan Cirit laser-guided rocket, Panter Howitzer, ACV-300, Otokar Cobra and Akrep, BMC - Kirpi, FNSS Pars 6x6 and 8x8 APC, Nurol Ejder 6x6 APC, TOROS artillery rocket system, Bayraktar Mini UAV, ASELPOD, and SOM cruise missile.

Turkey is the tenth ranked producer of minerals in the world in terms of diversity. Around 60 different minerals are currently produced in Turkey. The richest mineral deposits in the country are boron salts, Turkey’s reserves amount to 72% of the world's total. According to the CIA World Factbook, other natural resources include coal, iron ore, copper, chromium, uranium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestine (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropower, and geothermal power.

With the establishment of the Turkish Environment Ministry on August 9, 1991 (which later merged with the Ministry of Forestry on May 1, 2003, and became the Ministry of Environment and Forestry, and which later detached from Ministry of Forestry and merged with Ministry of Development and Housing on June 6, 2011, and became Ministry of Environment and Urban Planning began to make significant progress addressing some of its most pressing environmental problems. The most dramatic improvements were significant reductions of air pollution in Istanbul and Ankara. The most pressing needs are for water treatment plants, waste water treatment facilities, solid waste management and conservation of biodiversity.

The country's wealth is mainly concentrated in the northwest and west, while the east and southeast suffer from poverty, lower economic production and higher levels of unemployment. However, in line with the continuous economic growth in Turkey during the recent decade, parts of Anatolia began reaching a higher economic standard. These cities are known as the Anatolian Tigers.

Central Bank of Turkmenistan

The Central Bank of Turkmenistan is the national bank of Turkmenistan. It is located in the centre of Ashgabat. It was established in 1991 and regulates the country’s banking system and supervises the national financial policy.
It is located in a distinctive high rise building.

The Board of the Central Bank of Turkmenistan consists of an odd number of people. This includes the Governor, who is the Chairman of the Board and several Vice-Chairmen. Merdan Annadurdiyev is the Governor since January 2015.

Turkmen Horse Day
In 2013, the Central Bank of Turkmenistan has issued a new collection of commemorative coins in honor of the Turkmen Horse Day. The gold and silver coins, called "Akhalteke horse of the Turkmen", have a value of $18. Ancient Akhal-Teke horses, known as "horses from heaven", are part of the national heritage of Turkmenistan, which is considered an international center of horse grooming.

Economy of Turkmenistan

Turkmenistan is one of the world's fastest-growing economies. It is largely a desert country with intensive agriculture in irrigated areas, and huge gas and oil resources. In terms of natural gas reserves, it is ranked 4th in the world. Regarding agriculture, the two largest crops are cotton, most of which is produced for export, and wheat, which is domestically consumed. Turkmenistan is among the top ten producers of cotton in the world. From 1998 to 2005, Turkmenistan suffered from the continued lack of adequate export routes for natural gas and from obligations on extensive short-term external debt. At the same time, however, total exports rose by an average of roughly 15% per year from 2003 to 2008, largely because of higher international oil and gas prices. As in the Soviet era, central planning and state control pervade the system, and the Niyazov government (in power 1991–2006) consistently rejected market reform programs. The state subsidizes a wide variety of commodities and services. Since his election in 2007, President Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow has unified the country's dual currency exchange rate, ordered the redenomination of the manat, reduced state subsidies for gasoline, and initiated development of a special tourism zone (Avaza) on the Caspian Sea. Since 2009, Turkmenistan has maintained the fixed exchange rate. As of June 18, 2016, 1 United States dollar is equivalent to 3.50 Turkmenistan manat.

The financial system is under full state control. The banking system, which was reduced substantially after the 1998 financial crisis, includes 12 national banks. These institutions have the same basic division of responsibility as in the Soviet era, overseen by the Central Bank of Turkmenistan. Lending operations and household savings have not been important functions of this system. In 2005 an estimated 95 percent of loans went to state enterprises. Turkmengosstrakh, the state insurance firm, has a complete monopoly of the very small insurance industry.

In the early 2000s, the contribution of Turkmenistan’s state-run agriculture sector to gross domestic product increased under close state supervision. As during the Soviet era, cotton is the dominant agricultural commodity because it is an export staple. However, in recent years state policy makers have increased the range of crops with the aim of making Turkmenistan self-sufficient in food. In the post-Soviet era, the area planted to grains (mainly wheat) has nearly tripled. However, most agricultural land is of poor quality and requires irrigation. Turkmenistan’s irrigation infrastructure and water-use policies have not responded efficiently to this need. Irrigation now depends mainly on the decrepit Garagum Canal, which carries water across Turkmenistan from the Amu Darya. The Dostluk dam, opened at Serakhs on the Iranian border in 2005, has increased available irrigation water and improved efficiency. Plans call for a similar dam on the Atrek River west of Ashgabat. Private farmers grow most of Turkmenistan’s fruits and vegetables (chiefly tomatoes, watermelons, grapes, and onions), but all production phases of the main cash crops—grain and cotton—remain under state control. In 2006 grain crop failures led to steadily increasing bread lines and reinstatement of a ration system in most regions. At the root of those failures was a culture of falsifying output figures together with poor administration of the sector

The Turkmen Government claims to have placed great emphasis on foreign economic relations and foreign trade and an "open door" trade policy, as declared by the President.[citation needed] At present 73 countries are partners of Turkmenistan, including the republics of the NIS. The most prominent trade partners of Turkmenistan are the United States, Turkey, Switzerland, Hong Kong, Germany, the United Kingdom, Cyprus, Iran, and the United Arab Emirates. Turkmenistan is a member of the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO).

Export of industrial and agricultural raw materials remain the most important goals of the Turkmen Government. Price controls on most goods, the stabilization of reproduction processes, the creation of stable economic growth, and flexibility to innovations and a socially oriented economy also are very important. The government is attempting to strengthen state regulation of foreign trade and create a state system of insurance to expand and consolidate foreign economic relations. Because of considerable growth of foreign investments, improvements are taking place in the economy. Privatization of medium and large enterprises are proceeding slowly.

In January 2006, Saparmurat Niyazov ordered to stop paying pensions to ⅓ (more than 100,000) of elderly people, cutting pensions to another 200,000, and ordering to pay the pensions received in the past two years back to the State. This has resulted in a huge number of deaths of old people, who may have had their pension (ranging from $10 to $90) as the only source of money.

Recent statistics are not available on Turkmenistan’s labor force. In 2003 the labor force was estimated to include more than 2.3 million workers, 48 percent of whom worked in agriculture, 38 percent in services, and 14 percent in industry and construction. Because the state dominates the economy, an estimated 90 percent of workers are in effect state employees. Unemployment statistics are not available because unemployment does not exist officially. It is believed that downsizing the government workforce, which began in 2003, increased unemployment in subsequent years.

The average monthly salary in Turkmenistan in 2007 was 507 TMT (178 USD) and the same indicator in 2012 was 943 TMT (331 USD). This is equivalent to 86% increase. This dramatic increase is mainly due to the yearly increase of 10% of the state employer salaries by the Government of Turkmenistan.

By 1999, privatization in trade, catering, consumer services was fully completed. Availability of adequate legal base, opening of credit lines, including the foreign ones, simplified the procedure of private enterprises opening and licensing, led to enlargement of the sphere of entrepreneurship. The private sector dominates in agriculture (60%), trade (70%) and transport (56%). Turkmenistan plans to privatize several state companies during 2013-2016. 

National Bank of Tuvalu

The National Bank of Tuvalu (NBT) is the sole provider of banking services in Tuvalu related to taking deposits, making loans and engaging in foreign exchange transactions.

There is no central monetary institution or central bank in Tuvalu. The NBT performs some monetary functions for the government of Tuvalu including the holding of government accounts and foreign assets..

The NBT is the only institution in Tuvalu that provides foreign exchange transactions. The NBT buys and sells foreign exchange at rates determined by the board of the NBT who take account of the rates quoted in the international markets.

The NBT cashes travellers cheques. There are no credit-card facilities or ATMs available in Tuvalu. The Tuvaluan dollar is not an independent currency, but a variation of the Australian dollar. Tuvalu began issuing its own coins for circulation, although these circulate alongside Australian coins and Tuvalu continues to use Australian banknotes.

The NBT was established as a corporate body under the National Bank of Tuvalu 1980. When the NBT was first established it was a subsidiary of Barclays Bank. In 1985 it changed to become a joint venture between the government of Tuvalu, which held 60% of the shares and Westpac, which held the remaining 40%. In 1995 the government of Tuvalu acquired 100% of the shares.The headquarters of the NBT are at Vaiaku in Funafuti, and agencies are operated on all eight outer islands.

The National Bank of Tuvalu 1980 states that “the Bank shall act in accordance with any policy directions in the national interest given to it from time to time in writing by the Minister of Finance”. NBT has a board of directors consisting of the secretary for finance and four others (excluding members of Parliament) appointed by the minister for periods determined by the minister. The board is required “to ensure that Bank policy is directed towards the national interest and has due regard to the stability and balanced development of the economy of Tuvalu.”

The board appoints a general manager for a term of up to 5 years. The general manager must attend board meetings but has no voting rights.

In 2001 the NBT employed two managers (finance and administration, and lending and operations) and 38 officers, clerks, and tellers.In 2009 staff levels of the NBT were 45 employees.

The TNB’s deposit rates are low by regional standards, and lending rates are the same or above the rates charged in more competitive banking systems.

Between 1990 and 2000 the NBT operated profitably, returning an average 58.3% on net assets before tax and contributing an annual average of $507,000 in company tax and dividends to the government. Earnings on foreign exchange transactions are a major source of income. In 2001 loans and advances were around 28% of total deposits, reflecting the limited opportunities for domestic lending and conservative reserves management. The level of operations in the first quarter of 2001 resulted in A$1.2 million in new lending: 58% of personal loans were for family commitments, including funeral, wedding, and birthday expenses; 29% for travelling; and 11% for education; with the remaining 2% being advances to seamen.

The NBT has maintained its profitable as of 2008. A review by the Asian Development Bank, related to an ADB facility for the government of Tuvalu recommended that the NBT implementation prudent fiscal discipline to improve liquidity. The changes including the repayment by the government of Tuvalu of an overdraft of around A$5 million in respect of which the bank has a foregone interest of approximately A$500,000 per year. The IMF 2014 Country Report noted the NBT had restricted its exposure to public enterprises and made substantial provisions in relation to debtors.

Loans are available from the Tuvalu National Provident Fund (TNPF), which is owned by its members and has the legal form as a mutual fund rather than a body corporate owned by shareholders.The TNPF invests social contributions from slightly more than half the country’s population, with payments from the TNPF made on retirement.

The Development Bank of Tuvalu (DBT), which began in 1993, is also owned by the government of Tuvalu. The DBT provides development loans. The IMF 2014 Country Report also noted the DBT had made substantial provisions in relation to debtors.

Economy of Tuvalu

Tuvalu is a Polynesian island nation located in the Pacific Ocean, midway between Hawaii and Australia. The economy of Tuvalu is constrained by its remoteness and lack of economies of scale. Government revenues largely come from the lease of its highly fortuitous .tv Top Level Domain (TLD); sales of stamps and coins; fishing licences (primarily paid under the South Pacific Tuna Treaty); direct grants from international donors (government donors as well as from the Asian Development Bank); and income from the Tuvalu Trust Fund (established in 1987 by the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand).

The Tuvalu Trust Fund was established for the intended purpose of helping to supplement national deficits, underpin economic development, and help the nation achieve greater financial autonomy. The Trust Fund, has contributed roughly (A$79 million) 15% of the annual government budget each year since 1990. With a capital value of about 2.5 times GDP, the Trust Fund provides an important cushion for Tuvalu's volatile income sources from fishing and royalties from the sale of the .tv domain.

World Bank Statistics outline that in 2010 Tuvalu produced a bottom-tier ranking Gross Domestic Product of $31,350,804 and Gross National Income of $4,760. In terms of GNI the nation compares, adequately with other Pacific SIDS states such as Kiribati ($2,010) and the Marshall Islands ($3,640). Fishing licensing agreements with Taiwan, Japan, South Korea, New Zealand and the United States generating an income of A$9 million in 2009. In 2013 revenue from fishing licenses doubled in 2013 and now totales more than 45% of GDP.

A large proportion of national income is obtained through the employment of 15% of adult male Tuvaluans, overseas in the maritime industry. The value of these remittances was valued at A$4 million (est. 2006) and on average accounts for 10% of GDP. A UN Report makes reference to the fact that these revenue streams are vulnerable to macroeconomic change while the national budget remains heavily subsidised through international aid and funding schemes such as the Tuvalu Trust Fund (TTF) with a strong reliance on the importation of food (imports $15.5 million 2007 est).

On 5 August 2012, the Executive Board of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) concluded the Article IV consultation with Tuvalu, and assessed the economy of Tuvalu: “A slow recovery is underway in Tuvalu, but there are important risks. GDP grew in 2011 for the first time since the global financial crisis, led by the private retail sector and education spending. We expect growth to rise slowly”.

Tuvaluans are primarily involved in traditional agriculture and fishing. Job opportunities also exist as observers on tuna boats where the role is to monitor compliance with the boat's tuna fishing licence.

The Tuvaluan economy therefore relies heavily on its fishing income, with 42% of the Tuvaluan population involved in fishing activity at various levels. UN Data calculated a gross value of fisheries at US$43,773,582 (2007 est), which accounted for the output of coastal commercial fishing, coastal subsistence fishing, locally based offshore fishing, foreign-based offshore fishing, freshwater fishing and aquaculture. In recent years all of the income has been generated through the listed activities in Tuvalu waters, rather than through exports direct from Tuvalu. The activities of international fishing vessels, which in 2008 comprised 42 longline fishing vessels, 3 pole/line vessels and 126 purse seiners, far outweigh domestic activity, with a production volume of 35,541 tonnes worth US$40,924,370 (2009 est) or 93.5% of gross value, although Tuvalu retains a sizeable share in income via licensing. The fishing in the 900,000 km2 of water area mainly consists of Skipjack Tuna, Yellowfin Tuna and Bigeye Tuna.

Tuvalu men are employed abroad working on container ships, primarily on German-owned ships. Remittances from seafarers is a major source of income for families in the country. In 2002, the Asian Development Bank approved an assistance package to upgrade the Tuvalu Maritime Training Institute (TMTI) which trains young Tuvaluans so they can work aboard foreign vessels.[ This project was completed in 2011.The Global Economic Crisis (GEC) that began in 2007 has impacted on global export-import activities and the demand for shipping, which reduced the need for seafarers from Tuvalu.

The public sector enterprises are the National Bank of Tuvalu, Development Bank of Tuvalu, Tuvalu Electricity Corporation, Tuvalu Telecommunications Corporation, Tuvalu Philatelic Bureau, Tuvalu Maritime Training Institute and Vaiaku Lagi Hotel.

Banking services are provided by the National Bank of Tuvalu.

The Tuvalu Media Department of the Government of Tuvalu operates one station on the AM frequencies under the title of Radio Tuvalu. Fenui – news from Tuvalu is a free digital publication of the Tuvalu Media Department that is emailed to subscribers and operates a Facebook page, which publishes news about government activities and news about Tuvaluan events, such as a special edition covering the results of the 2015 general election.

The Tuvalu National Provident Fund (TNPF) and the Copra Trading Co-operative (CTC) are owned by the members of each organisation. The TNPF provides its members with loans, for which each member’s account is used as collateral. The Tuvalu Cooperative Society is the main wholesaler and retailer in Tuvalu.

Bank of Uganda

The Bank of Uganda, Benki Kuu ya Uganda, is the central bank of Uganda. Established in 1966, by Act of Parliament, the bank is wholly owned by the government of Uganda but is not a government department.

The board of directors of the Bank of Uganda is the bank's supreme policy making body. It is chaired by the governor or, in his or her absence, by the deputy governor.

The duties and powers of the board are specified by the Bank of Uganda Act. This Act makes the board responsible for the general management of the affairs of the bank. The board formulates policy and ensures that anything required to be done by the bank under the statute as well as anything else that is within or incidental to the functioning of the bank is carried out.

The president of Uganda appoints both the governor and the deputy governor, on the advice of the cabinet, for five-year renewable terms. Other members of the board (not fewer than four and not more than six) are appointed by the minister of finance for three-year renewable terms. The secretary to the treasury is an ex-officio member of the board.

The current governor is Emmanuel Tumusiime-Mutebile and the deputy governor is Louis Kasekende.

The central bank maintains currency centers in various locations around the country, whose purpose is to store, process and monitor the supply of currency to the government and private financial institutions in the surrounding cities, towns and villages. There are a total of nine currency centers in the following cities and towns:

Arua Currency Center - Arua
Fort Portal Currency Center - Fort Portal
Gulu Currency Center - Gulu
Jinja Currency Center - Jinja
Kabale Currency Center - Kabale
Kampala Currency Center - Kampala
Masaka Currency Center - Masaka
Mbale Currency Center - Mbale
Mbarara Currency Center - Mbarara
Financial inclusion
The bank actively promotes the policy of financial inclusion, and is a member of the Alliance for Financial Inclusion.

The bank is also one of the original 17 regulatory institutions to make specific national commitments to financial inclusion under The Maya Declaration during the AFI Global Policy Forum held in Riviera Maya, Mexico in 2011.

Tourism in Uganda

Tourism in Uganda is focused on Uganda's landscape and wildlife. It is a major driver of employment, investment and foreign exchange, contributing 4.9 trillion Ugandan shillings (US$1.88 billion or €1.4 billion as of August 2013) to Uganda's GDP in the financial year 2012-13.

Tourism can be used to fight poverty in Uganda. There are the tourism companies which employ people directly as drivers, guides, secretaries, accountants etc. These companies sell products to tourist for example art and crafts, traditional attire. Tourism can also be operated online by the online based companies. Tourist attractions in Uganda include national game parks, game reserves, traditional sites, natural tropical forests. Traditional occasions like Mbalu in eastern Uganda, boat riding, waterfalls etc.

Presently, the Ministry of Tourism, Wildlife and Heritage and the Uganda Tourism Board maintain information along with statistics pertaining to tourism for the country. There has been increased investment in tourism, particularly in travel accommodation and related facilities; this has enhanced tourists' experience in the country.

Adventure tourism, ecotourism and cultural tourism are being developed. About three-quarters of Uganda's tourists are from other African countries. Kenya, which borders Uganda, is the biggest source of tourists to Uganda, making up almost half of all arrivals into the country. The number of visitors from Tanzania, Rwanda, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Sudan is quite low.

As Uganda is a landlocked country, it is very dependent on connections through Kenya for most of its transport. International travellers sometimes prefer to fly into Nairobi before connecting to Uganda's capital Kampala as this is often cheaper. Below is a table showing the number of tourists that have visited Uganda's national parks between 2006-2010. In 2012 Uganda was awarded Number 1 in "Top Countries & Travel Destinations 2012" by Lonely Planet.

Game viewing is the most popular tourist activity in Uganda. Wild animals like lions, buffaloes, giraffes, antelopes, elephants are common in Uganda’s ten national parks. Uganda is one of only three countries where it is possible to visit the endangered mountain gorillas. The others are Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Mountain gorillas are Uganda's prime tourist attraction. The vast majority of these are in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, with a few others in Mgahinga National Park, both in southwestern Uganda. In Bwindi, visitors have been allowed to view the mountain gorillas since April 1993. The development of gorilla tourism and the habituation of gorillas to humans is proceeding very carefully because of the dangers to gorillas, such as contracting human diseases.

Meanwhile, Queen Elizabeth National Park is home to the tree climbing lions. Lions do not normally climb trees, except when chased by another lion group or wild buffalo. However the tree climbing lions found in QE-NP intentionally climb trees and rest on them in the afternoon, when the sun is high. This is a truly unique phenomenon. There have only been rare similar sightings of this in Lake Manyara National Park of Tanzania.

With its prime location in the African Great Lakes region, Uganda has a variety of water bodies that are popular spots for tourism. White water rafting and kayaking are popular activities on the rapids near the source of the Nile at Jinja.

Boating which is commonly done on Lake Victoria, Lake Mburo, Lake Bunyonyi, Kazinga Channel, and River Nile is a perfect way of exploring the buffaloes, hippos, crocodiles and a wide variety of bird species that inhabit the banks of these water bodies. Sport fishing is another favorite tourist activity. Fish like the Nile perch, and tilapia can be caught in designated areas of Lake Mburo and the banks of the Nile. Canoeing can also be done at Lake Bunyonyi.

Uganda has many opportunities for mountain climbing, hiking and nature walks. The Rwenzori Mountains, which are found at the border with the DRC, include the snowcapped Margherita Peak (5109 m), the highest Mountain Range in Africa and also one of the highest peaks. Mgahinga Gorilla National Park also includes three peaks, Mount Gahinga, Mount Sabyinyo, and Mount Muhavura, the highest peak in the national park. Mount Elgon, located in Eastern Uganda, can be used for hiking and climbing, and also has one of the largest calderas in the world.

Economy of Uganda

Endowed with significant natural resources, including ample fertile land, regular rainfall, and mineral deposits, it is thought that Uganda could feed all of Africa if it were commercially farmed. The economy of Uganda has great potential, and it appeared poised for rapid economic growth and development.

Chronic political instability and erratic economic management since self-rule has produced a record of persistent economic decline that has left Uganda among the world's poorest and least-developed countries. The national energy needs have historically been more than domestic energy generation, though large petroleum reserves have been found in the west.

After the turmoil of the Amin period, the country began a program of economic recovery in 1981 that received considerable foreign assistance. From mid-1984 onward, overly expansionist fiscal and monetary policies and the renewed outbreak of civil strife led to a setback in economic performance.

Since assuming power in early 1986, Museveni's government has taken important steps toward economic rehabilitation. The country's infrastructure—notably its transport and communications systems which were destroyed by war and neglect—is being rebuilt. Recognizing the need for increased external support, Uganda negotiated a policy framework paper with the IMF and the World Bank in 1987.

Uganda subsequently began implementing economic policies designed to restore price stability and sustainable balance of payments, improve capacity utilization, rehabilitate infrastructure, restore producer incentives through proper price policies, and improve resource mobilization and allocation in the public sector. These policies produced positive results. Inflation, which ran at 240% in 1987 and 42% in June 1992, was 5.4% for fiscal year 1995-96 and 7.3% in 2003.

Investment as a percentage of GDP was estimated at 20.9% in 2002 compared to 13.7% in 1999. Private sector investment, largely financed by private transfers from abroad, was 14.9% of GDP in 2002. Gross national savings as a percentage of GDP was estimated at 5.5% in 2002. The Ugandan Government has also worked with donor countries to reschedule or cancel substantial portions of the country's external debts.

The industrial sector is being rehabilitated to resume production of building and construction materials, such as cement, reinforcing rods, corrugated roofing sheets, and paint. Domestically produced consumer goods include plastics, soap, cork, beer, and soft drinks. Major Cement manufacturers like 'Tororo Cement Ltd' caters to the need of building and construction material consumers across East Africa.

Uganda has about 30,000 kilometres (19,000 mi) of roads, with approximately 2,800 kilometres (1,700 mi) paved. Most radiate from Kampala.

The country has about 1,350 kilometres (840 mi) of rail lines. A railroad originating at Mombasa on the Indian Ocean connects with Tororo, where it branches westward to Jinja, Kampala, and Kasese and northward to Mbale, Soroti, Lira, Gulu, and Pakwach. The only railway line still operating, however, is the one to Kampala.

Uganda's important link to the port of Mombasa is now mainly by road, which serves its transport needs and also those of neighboring Rwanda, Burundi, parts of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and South Sudan. An international airport is at Entebbe on the shore of Lake Victoria, about 32 kilometres (20 mi) south of Kampala.

The Uganda Communications Commission regulates communications, primarily "delivered through an enabled private sector."

Uganda's predominant mineral occurrences are gold, tungsten, tin, beryl, and tantalite in the south; tungsten, clay, and granite between latitude zero and two degrees north; and gold, mica, copper, limestone, and iron in the north.

In late 2012, the government of Uganda was taken to court over value added tax that it placed on goods and services purchased by Tullow Oil, a foreign oil company operating in the country. The court case will be heard at an international court based in the United States and could have serious ramifications for Uganda if lost; Uganda’s membership at the World Bank depends on its maintenance of “multi-lateral investments treaties and associated guarantees”. There is also a possibility that the country could be sanctioned by the World Bank if found in breach of trade and investment agreements signed bilaterally with the United Kingdom. The Ugandan government insists that Tullow cannot claim taxes on supplies as recoverable costs before oil production starts. Sources from within the government reveal that the main concern at present is the manner in which millions of dollars have been lost in the past decade, money that could allegedly have stayed in Uganda for investment in the public sector; a Global Financial Integrity report recently revealed that illicit money flows from Uganda between 2001 and 2012 totalled $680 million. Tullow Oil is being represented in the court case by Kampala Associated Advocates, whose founder is Elly Kurahanga, the President of Tullow Uganda. A partner at Kampala Associated Advocates, Peter Kabatsi, was also Uganda’s solicitor general between 1990 and 2002, and he has denied claims that he negotiated contracts with foreign oil firms during his time in this role.

Uganda began issuing its own currency in 1966 through the Bank of Uganda. Prior to the failure of the East African Currency Board, Uganda used other countries' currency.

There have been six changes of currency since 1966, but the 1987 version has been stable. Upgrades to it have been intended to decrease counterfeiting and make the currency more useful.

National Bank of Ukraine

National Bank of Ukraine, Національний банк України, is the central bank of Ukraine. Its headquarters building, constructed between 1902 and 1934, is located at 9 vulytsia Institutska (Institute Street), in Kiev.

Before the fall of the Soviet Union during the times of perestroika, the National Bank of Ukraine was a republican branch of the Central Bank of the USSR, while there were registered number of banks with various status. There were over 15 banks of ministerial status, over 20 banks of state/cooperative institutions, Moscow banks in Ukraine, banks with state status. Officially, the National Bank of Ukraine acted as the Central Bank of Ukraine since early 1991 (while part of the Soviet Union). Like institutions of many newly independent nations, it faced dire financial straits during the 1990s, leading to a prolonged period of hyperinflation.

On March 20, 1991, the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine adopted the resolution "On Banks and Banking Activity", which became Law on May 1. The resolution declared ownership by the Ukrainian SSR of the Ukrainian Republican Bank of the State Bank of the USSR (later National Bank of Ukraine), the Ukrainian Republican Bank of the State Commercial Industrial-Constructional Bank of the USSR "Ukrprombudbank", the Ukrainian Republican Bank of the Savings Bank of the USSR, and the Ukrainian Republican Bank of the ForeignEconomBank of the USSR as well as the Ukrainian Republican Department of Encashment of the State Bank of the USSR.

Former President of Ukraine Viktor Yushchenko was Governor of the National Bank of Ukraine from January 1993 to December 1999, before becoming Prime Minister. Later Serhiy Arbuzov became Prime Minister of Ukraine for a short term in 2014 after being Governor of the National Bank.


1 Ukrainian hryvnia bill
According to the Constitution of Ukraine, the main function of the National Bank is to ensure the stability of Ukraine's monetary unit. To carry this out, the National Bank fosters the stability of the banking system and, within its competence, price stability.

Due to Art.51 of the law about the National Bank of Ukraine, the NBU is accountable for its activities to the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, the President of Ukraine and the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine 

The National Bank also carries out the following functions:

to determine and pursue the monetary policy in accordance with the General Principles of the Monetary Policy developed by the Council of the National Bank of Ukraine;
to issue the national currency of Ukraine on a monopoly basis and to organize its circulation;
to establish the rules of conducting banking transactions, accounting and reporting, protection of the information, funds and property for the banks and other financial and credit institutions;
to organize and to provide the methodological support to the system of the monetary, crediting and banking statistical information and the statistics of the balance of payments;
to determine the areas of the development of modern electronic banking technologies, to establish, co-ordinate and control the creation of electronic means of payment, payment system, banking automation and the banking information protection facilities;
to exercise the banking regulation and supervision;
to keep a Register of banks, their branch and representative offices, currency exchanges and financial and credit institutions, to license banking business and transactions, if provided for by the laws;.
to compile, analyze and forecast the balance of payments;
to represent Ukraine's interests in central banks of other states, international banks and other crediting institutions, where the cooperation takes place at the level of central banks;
to exercise the currency regulation with the competence to be defined by a special law, to determine the procedure of effecting payments in the foreign currency, to organise and exercise the currency control over the commercial banks and other credit institutions which are in possession of a National Bank's license for the transactions with currency values;
to ensure the accumulation and custody of the gold and currency reserves and the conduction of transactions with them and the banking metals;
to analyze the status of the monetary, crediting, financial, pricing and currency relations;
to organize the collection and transportation of bank notes, coins and other values;
to implement the national policy of the protection of state secrets within the system of the National Bank;
to take part in the training of personnel for Ukraine's banking system;
to exercise other functions in the monetary and crediting sphere within its competence defined by the law.

Due to information of the National Bank of Ukraine the tenure of the council expired at 10.09.2015. A new composition of the council hasnt been appointed till now. Its unknown, who carries out the obligations of the council due to art.9 of the law about the national bank (supervision of the board, internal audit etc.) actually.

Due to the recent economical crisis the number of the registered banks decreased sharply to actually 111 (due to the state depositors guarantee fund 31.03.2016,). The National Bank of Ukraine announced a target of approximately 80-100 banks at the market. There are state-owned banks like Oshadny,Ukrexim or Ukrgas, but the fast majority of banks is in private property. Largest banks by assets are the Privatbank (PrivatGroup,Dnipro) and the state savings "Oshadnybank". All registered banks are member of the Deposit Guarantee Funds, which guarantees deposits up to 200.000 UAH per person and bank in case of insolvency. The Oshadnybank is excluded from this fund, cause the Republic of Ukraine guarantees their deposits directly. Banks are divided by the National Bank into four categories depending on their capitals (for intensity of banking supervision). There are a couple of big banks owned through off-shore companies. However, since 2016 all bank owner-structures had to be published till the last physical person to the National Bank of Ukraine to enforce the Anti-money-laundring and -tax-evasion-policy of the NBU. Foreign banking is still dominated from the Russian Federation (Sberbank, VTB, Alfa, Prominvest), while the austrian Raiffeisen Aval Bank continues to stay strong. Per 01.04.2016 private households are holding f.e. 375,2 Mrd.UAH deposits in ukrainian banks 

In October 2013, the National Bank of Ukraine has introduced a new commemorative silver coin on the 70th anniversary of the Melitopol offensive against German troops and the liberation of the city of Melitopol on October 23, 1943. The new coin is called "The Breakthrough of Soviet Troops Against the German Defense Line Wotan and liberation of Melitopol" and each of the 30,000 limited edition coins is worth $5.

Beside this the National Bank of Ukraine offers a broad scale of commemorative and bullion coins and numismatic products, which are being sold primarily (2/3 of production) by the branches of NBU and 1/3 by state banks (Oshadnybank and Ukrgasbank)